According to a brief search, it seems that anamorphic perspective can be found as early as the 15th century.
When one observes the works of the old masters, it is not
rare to become astonished with their skills, not only in terms of drawing but also their knowledge of mathematics and other sciences. So it may not be a surprise to see fine examples of anamorphic perspective from centuries ago.
The image shown, Triumph of the name of Jesus, is from Giovanni Battista Gaulli and was executed from 1672 to 1685.
One of my favorite artists is Andrea Pozzo and his anamorphic perpective works are simply amazing.
Like in those times, its use is still seen on buildings and fortunately the less acquainted with the matter can enjoy it through art festivals and competitions, namely by seeing the works of great sidewalk artists such as Julian Beever.
And if you want to digg a bit more into it, here are two more links to explore :